Peripheral arterial disease is a common disease associated with atherosclerosis (plaque formation) occurring in any of the arteries in your body. It is often associated with coronary artery disease as well as cerebrovascular disease. It is simply diagnosed by using an ultrasound or by measuring an ankle-brachial index, which is a ratio of the blood pressure measurement in your arms and your legs.. If this is noted to be abnormal or if you have symptoms of leg pain while walking, a peripheral arterial study may be indicated. This is an ultrasound study assessing the flow of blood into your legs and is very accurate in assessing the presence of plaque and determining the amount of blood flow to your legs.